Drainage - is part of the building services systems without which buildings will not be built. You should choose the pipes for drainage system properly in order to achieve the absence of unpleasant smells, and long operating life, and averting of accidental leaks. In addition, if you carefully analyze the types of drainage pipes and choose the most suitable pipes, you do not have to repair them soon after installation. Also you should know the requirements for drainage systems.
How to choose drainage pipes? Choosing the drainage pipes is dependent on many factors, and one of the most important factor is application scope of the drainage system - it can be drainage for private cottages, industrial facility or hospital, a low-rise house or a skyscraper. Also drainage systems are divided into domestic, outdoor and rainwater. Depending of where drainage system will be operated, requirements for pipeline can vary considerably. And you shoul choose the drinage pipes and fittings based on these requirements.
They ask specialists in installation of sewer systems: what diameter of the drainage pipes to choose?
The diameter of the pipeline depends of where will be installed the pipeline. So for domestic drainage diameter is chose from 50 to 110 mm and for outdoor drainage system diameter is chose from 110 mm to 600 mm.
There are several rules for selecting diameter of pipes for drainage systems:
When choosing of pan connectors for toilets you must be considered that the pipe section should not be filled to 100% during the exploitation - there should be air gap which allows the passage air in reverse direction, and it prevents the creation of zones of high pressure and discharged pressure. Typically, the discharged air in the system drafts water from the trap seals, whereby air change between drainage system and room becomes possible, which is unacceptable. However, modern manufacturers of sanitary equipment developed solution to this problem - you can use special "dry" siphon HL production, which covers air change air change if trap seal collapses.
Also modern cast iron PAM-GLOBAL systems, as plastic systems, have smooth inner surface which does not need to purchase pipes with increased diameter, because risk of sewage silting and formation deposits on the inner surface of the pipes is much lower than for conventional cast iron pipes.
Answering the question of how to choose drainage pipes, the particular installation should be noted.
Plastic systems are suited for the installation both domestic and outdoor drainage systems perfectly. The main advantages of plastic pipes:
Bevel is removed from pipe after cutting of plastic pipes to the required length, then you can start the installation. Also you should add expanse for thermal expansion when installing the plastic pipes.
Habitual socket cast iron pipes are characterized by difficulty of installation - they require to be calk, so that the installation pipeline require a lot of time. However, modern socketless cast iron pipes PAM-GLOBAL do not require caulking - they are mounted with couplings, so that time consumption is reduce, including time on maintenance of the system because you can disassemble and replace required section of the pipeline as a constructor.
Pipeline system of HDPE are connected by butt welding usually - this method of installation is fast enough, but it requires the use of highly qualified installers. Using electrofusion couplers is a bit easier but you need appropriate equipment for it. Installation of PVC systems by means of socket connections with rubber seals is performed with much less labor inputs.
The riser is attached to the walls with supports, brackets and couplings which can be plastic or steel. When installing the plastic pipelines the couplings are mounted every two meters, while installing PAM-GLOBAL pipes - every 1.5 meters, also stack support pipes are mounted to the wall every 10-15 meters for dispatche the weight of the system on the supporting structures.
For fastening plastic pipes to the walls and ceilings you should use flexible connection - in this case the pipeline increased by several mm do not deform.
If the outdoor pipeline is laid on insufficient depth, which can result to freezing of the pipeline in winter time, it should be insulate. So that for outdoor pipeline you should use special corrugated PP, PVC and PE pipes which are characterized by increased resistance to frost - when laying even at depth of 1.5-2 meters they do not freeze because of their two-layer structure.
If you want to choose truly perfect drainage pipes, you need to pay attention to their sound insulation, and in a greater degree it applies to house drainage systems and, especially, hospitals. In premises where people live permanently you should mount maximum silent pipes, and for the right choice you need to examine the types of drainage pipes carefully:
One of the important characteristics when choosing pipes for sewage systems is the load of the internal pressure that the element of the system can withstand. For example, the UPVC pipeline can withstand pressure up to 16 bar, and the pipeline system of high density polyethylene can withstand pressure up to 20 bar. HDPE pipes can withstand pressure up to 16 bar depending on the type.
Before you select the pipe for drainage system, you should carefully consider the conditions under which will be operated drainage system: which load will be provided at the pipeline, how fast effluents will be moved through the pipeline, what effluents will be transported through the pipeline, can you install the pipeline yourself etc. Only when you will have clear answers to all questions, you can make accurate list of requirements for ideal pipes, which will help to analyze the types of drainage pipes and choose the most appropriate.